: This color illustration depicts a Shawnee Indian holding a spear. He is walking in a stream or a lake, and appears to be spear-fishing. He is carrying pack slung over one shoulder.
The Shawnee Indians were living in the Ohio Valley as early as the late 1600s. The Iroquois natives were unwilling to share these rich hunting grounds and drove the Shawnees away. Some went to Illinois; others went to Pennsylvania, Maryland or Georgia. As the power of the Iroquois weakened, the Shawnees moved back into Ohio from the south and the east. They settled in the lower Scioto River valley.
They were fierce warriors, fighting with the French until the French trading posts turned British. They fought with the British against the Americans during the American Revolution. Tecumseh tried to reunite the Indian Tribes, but was defeated by General Anthony Wayne in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Between 1831 and 1833, the U. S. Government sent the Indians to live in Oklahoma and Kansas.
Fierce warriors, the Shawnee natives were allies of the French until British traders moved into the Ohio Country circa 1740. The French pushed the British out of Ohio, and the Shawnees allied with the French again until the British victory in the French and Indian War. The Ohio natives, including the Shawnees, fought the British and their colonists. During the American Revolution, the Shawnees fought alongside the British against the Americans. The Shawnees believed that Britain would prevent the colonists from encroaching further upon the natives' land. After the war the American Indians continued to fight the Americans. General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnees and other Ohio natives at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. The Shawnees surrendered most of their lands in Ohio with the signing of the Treaty of Greeneville.
Many of the Shawnees moved into the Indiana Territory. Some of these people, however, hoped to reclaim their Ohio lands. Chief among them was Tecumseh, who hoped to unite together all native tribes west of the Appalachian Mountains against the United States. Due to the advanced technology of the whites and the American Indian's failure to put aside their traditional differences, Tecumseh's efforts at confederation failed. General William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnees and their allies at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Other Shawnees, like Black Hoof, adopted white customs, in the hope that the whites would allow the natives to continue to live on the land if the American Indians adopted white customs.
Between 1831 and 1833, the United States forced the Shawnees to give up their land claims in Ohio. The U.S. government sent the natives to reservations in Oklahoma and Kansas.
The Shawnees divided themselves into different clans. The principal leader of the Shawnees could only come from one clan. The name of this clan was “Chillicothe.” When a village was called Chillicothe, it meant that it was home to the principal chief, the “capital city” of the Shawnees. Chillicothe was also the name of Ohio's first state capital.
View on Ohio Memory.
: AL07000 Subjects
: Shawnee Tribe; American Indian history and society; Shawnee Indians--Government relations; Tecumseh, Shawnee Chief, 1768-1813; Greenville, Treaty of, 1795 Places
: Shawnee Tribe illustration