'Enforcement of the Fourteenth Amendment' speechSave
Description: Pamphlet titled "Enforcement of the Fourteenth Amendment. Speech of Hon. Samuel Shellabarger, of Ohio, in the House of Representatives, March 28, 1871." Shellabarger (1817-1896) was originally from Enon, Ohio, and served as a Republican representative to the U.S. House of Representatives.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees people of all races equal protection under the law. The amendment declared that all people born or naturalized in the United States were citizens of the nation and individual states could not deny U.S. citizens their "life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." States also had to provide all citizens with "equal protection of the laws." It also declared that the population within a state (excluding Native Americans and any male citizens who had participated in the rebellion against the United States government) would determine a state's representation in the United States House of Representatives. No members of the Confederate government, the Confederate armed forces, or any person who had served in a state government that had seceded from the United States of America would be permitted to hold political office in either the federal or the individual state governments. Finally, the amendment stated that the United States government would not honor any debts or obligations entered into by seceded states during the Civil War. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL04238 Subjects: Civil rights; Ohio History--Slavery, Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights; Constitutional amendments; Constitutional history--United States; Confederate States of America Places: Washington D.C.; Enon (Ohio); Clark County (Ohio)
Description: Dated November 12, 1936, this photograph shows the entrance to the Underground Railroad passages in the southwest corner inside the Calvary Methodist Episcopal Church, located on Seventh and Smith Streets in Cincinnati, Ohio. The church was constructed in 1869 and the parsonage in 1871. Although the church was built after the Civil War (1861-1865), the congregation believed slavery might return, and thus built underground tunnels that left from the church to the network of secret passageways in downtown Cincinnati, fully prepared to revive the Underground Railroad.
This photograph is one of the many visual materials collected for use in the Ohio Guide. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Works Progress Administration by executive order to create jobs for the large numbers of unemployed laborers, as well as artists, musicians, actors, and writers. The Federal Arts Program, a sector of the Works Progress Administration, included the Federal Writers’ Project, one of the primary goals of which was to complete the America Guide series, a series of guidebooks for each state which included state history, art, architecture, music, literature, and points of interest to the major cities and tours throughout the state. Work on the Ohio Guide began in 1935 with the publication of several pamphlets and brochures. The Reorganization Act of 1939 consolidated the Works Progress Administration and other agencies into the Federal Works Administration, and the Federal Writers’ Project became the Federal Writers’ Project in Ohio. The final product was published in 1940 and went through several editions. The Ohio Guide Collection consists of 4,769 photographs collected for use in Ohio Guide and other publications of the Federal Writers’ Project in Ohio from 1935-1939. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B02F16_002_1 Subjects: Underground Railroad--Ohio; Ohio History--Slavery, Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights; Churches; Cincinnati (Ohio)--History Places: Cincinnati (Ohio); Hamilton County (Ohio)
Description: William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) was a dedicated supporter of abolition and women's rights. During the 1830s, a new type of radical abolitionist appeared calling for an immediate end to slavery. Garrison was one of the most prominent radical abolitionists in this time, and called for slavery's immediate end as well as equal rights for African Americans with whites. Because of his outspoken views in the decades leading up to the American Civil War, Garrison was the most well-known abolitionist in the United States. Many Southern slave owners despised him, and the Georgia legislature placed a five thousand dollar bounty on his head, payable to anyone who brought him to the state for prosecution. He received numerous death threats from white Southerners, and many Northerners also disagreed with his message. Mobs often attacked Garrison when he gave speeches. Despite the opposition that he faced, Garrison remained committed to fighting for an end to slavery. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL04123 Subjects: Women's rights; Ohio History--Slavery, Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights; Abolitionists--Ohio
Description: Author Harriet Beecher Stowe, shown in this engraving, wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin after a visit to abolitionist John Rankin's home in Ripley, Ohio. Rankin and his family operated a major stop on the Underground Railroad and were credited with helping more than two thousand runaway slaves reach freedom in Canada. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) was born in Connecticut in 1811. She was one of eleven children and many of her siblings were active in antebellum reform movements. The family moved to Ohio, where Harriet married Calvin Stowe, a professor at the Lane Theological Seminary. Although she is best known for Uncle Tom's Cabin, Stowe published thirty books and many shorter pieces. While living near the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio, Stowe saw firsthand the horror of slavery across the river in Kentucky. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL00530 Subjects: Rights and Responsibilities; Ohio History--Slavery, Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights; Women abolitionists - Ohio; Authors Places: Cincinnati (Ohio); Hamilton County (Ohio)
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