Description: Painting of national colors of the 56th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry. Rectangular flag measures 181 cm high by 197 cm wide. Text on flag reads: Pittsburgh Landing, Port Gibson, Vicksburg, Carrion Crow Bayou, 56th Ohio Vet. Vol. Infy., Monnett's Ferry, Corinth, Champion's Hill, Jackson, Sabine Cross Roads, Snaggy Point. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL02445 Subjects: Flags--Ohio; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865
Description: Tintype portrait of James H. and Augustus Pomeroy Mitchell, soldiers in the 16th Independent Battery, Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery.
Augustus Pomeroy Mitchell served in the 16th Battery, which mustered in on September 5, 1861, under his brother, Captain James Anderson Mitchell. They were attached to the 1st Division, District of Southeast Missouri, Department of the Missouri until May 1862. The 16th Battery joined General Samuel Ryan Curtis’ army at Batesville and then marched to Helena on July 15th. In 1863 they moved to Vicksburg to join General Ulysses S. Grant’s army and fought in the battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hill, and the Siege of Vicksburg. The 16th Independent Battery mustered out on August 2, 1865, at Camp Chase. James H. Mitchell, also pictured, enlisted as a bugler with the 16th Battery.
Augustus Pomeroy Mitchell was born January 31, 1840, to Archibald and Sarah Swigart Mitchell, pioneer residents of Bethel Township in Clark County who lived on a farm a few miles east of New Carlisle, Ohio. He attended Linden Hill Academy and Wittenberg College. At 21 he volunteered for the Civil War and first entered for three months service in Company C, 1st Kentucky Volunteer Infantry. On August 20th, 1861, he entered service for three years as a member of the 16th Battery alongside three of his brothers and several cousins. He took active part in the Champion Hill Battle and the Siege of Vicksburg as a gunner. Mitchell was mustered out on August 2, 1865. In 1868 he married Emma Swaney of Enon, Ohio. They settled in Springfield, where they had three children: Jessie Mitchell, Earl W. Mitchell, and Iowa Mitchell Smith. In 1882, Mitchell moved his family to New Carlisle, where he served as mayor for two terms, as well as Justice of the Peace. He also served as president for the Western Pioneer Association for a number of years and was a member of Mitchell Post, G.A.R. Springfield, which was named in honor of his brother Captain James Anderson Mitchell. Augustus Pomeroy Mitchell died on August 18, 1915.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: MSS1503AV_B01F34_Mitchell Subjects: Ohio--History--Civil War, 1861-1865; Soldiers--Ohio--Photographs; Military life; Places: Springfield (Ohio); Clark County (Ohio)
Description: This blue silk flag with gold fringe served as the regimental colors of Ohio Ex-Prisoners of War. The flag was manufactured in the United States around 1865. This side of the flag features the United States Arms [bald eagle holding an olive branch in its right talon and a bundle of arrows in its left talon with a shield of the familiar stars and stripes on its breast; a light blue scroll below reads E Pluribus Unum or "Out of many, one"] inside a gold-outlined crest. A red scroll below the crest features gold text that reads: "WE CAN FORGIVE BUT NEVER FORGET."
The ex-prisoner of war regiments were formed after the Civil War by former Union soldiers who spent time in Confederate prisons.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL02189 Subjects: Ceremonial artifact; Communication artifact; Military flags; Flags--Ohio; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865; Textile--silk; POW; Ex-Prisoners of War; Places: Ohio
Description: Carte de visite portrait of Corporal William Hanks, who enlisted in the Union Army as a private on August 20, 1861 in Springfield, Ohio. On September 5, 1861, he was mustered into the Ohio 16th Light Artillery. He was promoted to Corporal in 1863, and mustered out on September 5, 1864 in Columbus, Ohio. The 16th Independent Battery of the Ohio Light Artillery was formed under Captain James Anderson Mitchell, and was attached to the 1st Division, District of Southeast Missouri, Department of the Missouri until May 1862. The 16th Battery joined General Samuel Ryan Curtis’ army at Batesville and then marched to Helena on July 15th. In 1863 they moved to Vicksburg to join General Ulysses S. Grant’s army and fought in the battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hill, and the Siege of Vicksburg. The 16th Independent Battery mustered out on August 2, 1865, at Camp Chase.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: MSS1503AV_B01F19_Hanks Subjects: Ohio--History--Civil War, 1861-1865; Soldiers--Ohio--Photographs; Military life Places: Springfield (Ohio); Clark County (Ohio)
Brigadier General John Sanford Mason photographSave
Description: Dated ca. 1861-1865, this is a photograph of American Civil War Brigadier General John Sanford Mason. Mason was born in Steubenville, Ohio, in 1824 and attended Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, and Washington College in Pennsylvania before being appointed to the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York, in 1843. After battling illness while serving in the Mexican War, Mason served in the American Civil War and eventually became the colonel of the 4th Ohio Infantry. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SC3316_1_BrigGenMason Subjects: U.S. Army; Civil War 1861-1865; Military officers; Generals--United States Places: Ohio
Description: "New-Year's Offering" address from the carriers of the Ohio State Evening Journal to the public, dated January 1, 1862. Written during the Civil War, this poetic address focuses on the current state of the nation with sections titled The Welcome, The Foe, The Rally and The Hope. An illustration at the top shows a globe labeled "Our Country" that is sinking among waves, but which still bears a waving American flag. Beginning as early as the 1700s, "carriers' addresses" like this one were a common practice for newspaper publishers on the first day of each new year, when the greetings were delivered to subscribers by delivery boys who often received a holiday tip in return. The practice began to decline after 1900. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: OVS1325 Subjects: New Year's; Holidays; Celebrations; Newspaper carriers; Civil War 1861-1865; Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Description: This is a landscape drawing by Ulysses S. Grant, drawn while he was a cadet at West Point in New York, ca. 1840.
Ulysses S. Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Ohio. Upon entering the United States Military Academy at West Point, he attempted to change his name from Hiram Ulysses to Ulysses Hiram but found that his name had already been mistakenly recorded at West Point as Ulysses Simpson Grant, which he never corrected.
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Grant was promoted to the rank of general and granted command of the Union army by President Abraham Lincoln. After the victory of the Union over the Confederacy, Grant's popularity led to his election as the 18th President of the United States in 1868. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: H83983_01 Subjects: Grant, Ulysses S., 1822-1885; Civil War 1861-1865; Military Ohio; Presidents--United States; Drawings (visual works) Places: West Point (New York)
Description: This is a tintype portrait of a man wearing a suit and resting his right hand on a pillar with a vase of flowers, standing in front of a hanging backdrop. The man pictured is possibly Major Martin R. Delany, an American Civil War soldier who recruited African Americans for the draft in Ohio, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: NAM_SC24_TintypeImageofWhatispossiblyMartinDelany Subjects: African American soldiers; Civil War 1861-1865; Military Ohio; Portrait photography
Description: Illustration by Henri Lovie titled "The Squirrel Rifles Entertained by the People of Cincinnati in the Fifth Street Market House, Cincinnati, Sept. 6." This print appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper on September 27, 1862.
In the second year of the Civil War, Confederate troops were ordered to capture Covington, Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio. Major General Horatio Wright, commander of Union forces in Kentucky, ordered General Lewis (Lew) Wallace to prepare Covington's and Cincinnati's defenses. Upon arriving in Cincinnati, Wallace immediately declared martial law. He issued a call in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan for a volunteer militia. Men in the regular army would fight on the battlefield, while the civilians would prepare trenches and other defensive features to prepare the two communities for attack. Cincinnati residents reportedly "cheerfully obeyed" the order.
Ohio Governor David Tod left Columbus, the state capital, and came to Cincinnati to assist Wallace. Tod immediately ordered Ohio's adjutant-general to send any available troops other than those guarding Ohio's southern border to Cincinnati. A number of Ohio counties offered to dispatch men to Cincinnati as well, and civilians from 65 counties numbering 15,766 men reported for duty at Cincinnati. These volunteer men became known as the "Squirrel Hunters." Many had no military training and carried antiquated weapons, but despite these shortcomings, they still rallied together to help defend Ohio from Confederate invasion. A Confederate scout reported that, "They call them Squirrel Hunters; farm boys that never had to shoot at the same squirrel twice."
Thanks to the actions of Wallace and Tod, Covington and Cincinnati had adequate defenses to repel the Confederate advance within two days. By September 13, 1862, news reached Cincinnati that the Confederate forces were withdrawing from Kentucky and that Cincinnati was no longer in danger. Wallace earned the nickname "Savior of Cincinnati" for his actions in September 1862. The Squirrel Hunters returned to their homes. To thank the Squirrel Hunters, the Ohio legislature, in 1863, authorized funds for Governor Tod to print discharges for these men from military duty. The discharges thanked the men for their patriotism and their willingness to sacrifice their lives in the defense of Ohio. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: OVS4109 Subjects: Civil War 1861-1865; Squirrel Hunters; Ohio--Militia; Cincinnati (Ohio)--History Places: Cincinnati (Ohio); Hamilton County (Ohio)
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