: Membership card for Mrs. Constance C. Nichols in the Vanguard League for the year 1943. As a contributing member, her annual dues were $5.00. Nichols was a founding member of the League, which formed during a meeting at her home in 1940.
The Vanguard League was founded in May 1940 by members of the African American community in Columbus, Ohio. They were dedicated to using nonviolent direct action to solve problems of race relations in the city, and the League's original motto read, "For equality, opportunity, liberty, and democracy for Negroes." Some of the problems addressed by the Vanguard League included discrimination in hiring, fair housing, segregated schools, and community conduct. By publishing pamphlets, holding civil rights events, organizing pickets, and filing civil suits against discriminatory practices, among other methods, the group achieved numerous successes including the hiring of African American women at the Curtiss Wright plant, and the desegregation of many theaters in Columbus.
In 1950 the Vanguard League became part of the Columbus chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality (C.O.R.E.), and former members of the Vanguard League continued to fight for civil rights in Columbus in many different capacities. View on Ohio Memory.
: MSS508_B01F04_001 Subjects
: African American Ohioans; Civil rights; Race relations; Vanguard League (Columbus, Ohio); Civic organizations; Activism Places
: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)