Description: This calumet, or ceremonial pipe, seen here in two views, was used at the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Possibly crafted by a member of one of the tribes who were signatories on the treaty, it is made of red catlinite with inlaid metal designs and a carved wooden stem, and was one of several pipes smoked by participants over the course of solemnizing the treaty negotiations.
General Anthony Wayne defeated the American Indian confederacy led by Blue Jacket at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Abandoned by the British at Fort Miami, the American Indians agreed to a peace settlement. A year later, representatives from twelve tribes met at Greenville, in present-day Darke County, to negotiate with Wayne. Among the leaders were Little Turtle of the Miami, Tarhe of the Wyandot, and Blue Jacket and Black Hoof of the Shawnee. The treaty confined the American Indians to northwestern Ohio. Despite Wayne's hope that the treaty would hold "as long as the woods grow and waters run" American Indians were removed to the West by the mid-19th century. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: H39471_1 Subjects: American Indian history and society; Wayne, Anthony, 1745 - 1796; American Indian tribal leaders; Treaty of Greenville; Ohio History--Settlement and Early Statehood; Places: Greenville (Ohio); Darke County (Ohio);
'Soi-En-Ga-Rah-Ta' or 'King Hendrick' paintingSave
Description: This print of unknown date shows an American Indian identified as Soi-En-Ga-Rah-Ta, or "King Hendrick." Soi-En-Ga-Rah-Ta was an Iroquois League chief born around 1677, who became a prominent leader by the early 1700s. He is sometimes referred to as "King of the Mohawk, " and traveled to Great Britain in 1710 as a representative of the Six Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora peoples. He was killed in combat during the French and Indian War in September 1755, and was remembered as a great orator and spirited leader. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: H22160 Subjects: Prints and printmaking; American Indian history and society; Portraits
Description: The once-massive limestone rock outcropping standing in the Maumee River known as Roche de Boeuf has marked many events in the history of the Maumee Valley. It was a legendary site for American Indians and the place where they gathered before the Battle of Fallen Timbers in August 1794. Early records indicate a nearby French settlement in the 1700s was called both Roche de Bout and Roche de Boeuf (spelled here Rouche de Boeuf), but for the last hundred years or so the latter has been most frequently used for both the rock and the lost settlement. About one-third of the rock was destroyed when the railroad bridge was built which caused a great controversy. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL07687 Subjects: American Indian history and society; Ohio History--Natural and Native Ohio; Maumee River (Ind. and Ohio); Geology--Ohio Places: Waterville (Ohio); Lucas County (Ohio)
Description: Bust portrait of Johnston (1775-1861). Johnston was born in Ireland and emigrated to the United States at age 11. He participated in Anthony Wayne's assault on Native Americans living in the Northwest Territory during the early 1790s. In 1802, President Thomas Jefferson appointed Johnston to be the Indian Agent at the trading agency in Fort Wayne, Indiana Territory. From 1811 until 1829, he served as the agent at the newly-established agency at Piqua, Ohio. Johnston helped negotiate the Treaty of Upper Sandusky in 1842, which resulted in the Wyandot Indians selling their land and moving west of the Mississippi River. Johnston played an important political and social role in Ohio as well. He was a strong advocate of the Whig Party. With his wife, Johnston formed the first Sunday school in Miami County. He helped found Kenyon College and also served on the board of trustees of Miami University. He published one of the earliest histories of the Native Americans that once called Ohio home. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SC2433_001_001 Subjects: Johnston, John, 1775-1861; Native American history and society; Indian agents; Ohio History--Settlement and Early Statehood; Places: Piqua (Ohio); Miami County (Ohio)
Description: This is a map showing the Newark Earthworks in Licking County, Ohio. The Newark Earthworks were the largest set of geometric earthworks ever built in what is now the state of Ohio. They were constructed by the Hopewell culture (100 B.C. to 500 A.D.), an ancient American Indian culture. Originally the earthworks included a great circular enclosure (the Great Circle Earthworks), another slightly smaller circle that was linked to an octagon (Octagon Earthworks), and a large, nearly perfect square enclosure (Wright Earthworks), in addition to an oval earthwork surrounded a dozen conical and loaf-shaped mounds. All of these structures were connected by a series of parallel walls. There were many smaller circular enclosures and a scattering of other mounds and pits. On the opposite bank of the Licking River's South Fork, another square enclosure and an oval earthwork encircled the top of a hill that overlooked the vast maze of geometric enclosures.
Over the years, the growth of the city of Newark destroyed many of the Newark Earthworks, but the Great Circle and the Octagon earthworks are major elements preserved by the efforts of interested local citizens. The surviving parts of the Newark Earthworks are recognized as a National Historic Landmark. In 2006, Governor Bob Taft formally declared the Newark Earthworks to be Ohio's state prehistoric monument, honoring the early American Indian builders of this site.
Archaeologists E.G. Squier and E.H. Davis, with the help of surveyor and geologist Charles Whittlesey, systematically documented the American Indian works and compiled them into an 1847 book called "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley: Comprising the Results of Extensive Original Surveys and Explorations." View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL07257 Subjects: Ohio History--Natural and Native Ohio; Earthworks (Archaeology); Mounds--Ohio River Valley; American Indian history and society Places: Newark (Ohio); Licking County (Ohio)
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