Burial place of Indian Martyrs at GnadenhuttenSave
Description: Dated ca. 1935-1940, this is a photograph of a plaque which reads "Burial Place of Remains of Indian Martyrs. 1782--1798." In the nine-acre plot at Gnadenhutten, German for "Tents of Grace," is a stone monument commemorating the 96 Christian American Indians massacred in 1872 by white men. They are buried in the mound inside the park. After David Zeisberger had established Moravian missions for the Indians at Schoenbrunn, a group of Christian Indians led by Joshua, a Mohican elder, came in 1772 and founded Gnadenhutten. Surrounded by American Indian groups, a ring of British forts on the west, and freebooters in nearby settlements, the little community held on until 1781 when a white renegade, Elliott, and Delware (Lenape) chiefs, Captain Pipe and Half-King, forced the American Indians at Gnadenhutten to move to the Sandusky plains. The winter was severe and their meager supplies ran low. In February of the following year, a large group returned to the Tuscarawas valley to salvage what they could of the crops remaining in the fields.
At the same time, a punitive expedition under Captain David Williamson left Pennsylvania for Gnadenhutten, arriving on March 7, the day before the American Indians were to return to Sandusky. Feigning friendship, the soldiers easily succeeded in disarming the men, and imprisoned them in one building, placing the women and children in another. The American Indians spend the night in prayer, while the militiamen got drunk. At dawn, the executions began. One soldier felled fourteen American Indians before he relinquished his tomahawk. Gnadenhutten was pillaged and burned. Two American Indian boys who had been scalped escaped to Schoenbrunn to warn their fellow Christians. This heinous massacre further aroused Ohio natives against the white Americans.
This photograph is one of the many visual materials collected for use in the Ohio Guide. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Works Progress Administration by executive order to create jobs for the large numbers of unemployed laborers, as well as artists, musicians, actors, and writers. The Federal Arts Program, a sector of the Works Progress Administration, included the Federal Writers’ Project, one of the primary goals of which was to complete the America Guide series, a series of guidebooks for each state which included state history, art, architecture, music, literature, and points of interest to the major cities and tours throughout the state. Work on the Ohio Guide began in 1935 with the publication of several pamphlets and brochures. The Reorganization Act of 1939 consolidated the Works Progress Administration and other agencies into the Federal Works Administration, and the Federal Writers’ Project became the Federal Writers’ Project in Ohio. The final product was published in 1940 and went through several editions. The Ohio Guide Collection consists of 4,769 photographs collected for use in Ohio Guide and other publications of the Federal Writers’ Project in Ohio from 1935-1939. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B15F01_021 Subjects: American Indians in Ohio; American Indian history; Tuscarawas County (Ohio); Gnadenhutten (Ohio); Gnadenhutten Massacre, Gnadenhutten, Ohio, 1782 Places: Gnadenhutten (Ohio); Tuscarawas (Ohio)
Description: Illustration showing the massacre of American Indians led by Colonel David Williamson of the Pennsylvania militia. In 1772, Moravian missionaries founded a mission for American Indians in the Ohio Country at Schoenbrunn ("Beautiful Spring" in German). Because of its success, Rev. David Zeisberger founded a second village in the same year at Gnadenhutten ("Tents of Grace" in German). Life at Gnadenhutten was similar to life at Schoenbrunn. On March 8 and 9, 1782, a group of Pennsylvania militiamen under the command of Williamson attacked the mission and the American Indians on site in retaliation for the deaths and kidnappings of several white Pennsylvanians, although this particular group of so-called "Christian Delaware" had recently returned from their new outpost at Upper Sandusky to forage for crops, and had no connection to the Pennsylvania attack. 28 men, 29 women and 39 children were killed, and the village burned. There were only two survivors, who informed Moravian missionaries and other American Indians as to what had occurred. This illustration comes from William Dean Howells' "Stories of Ohio" (1897). View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL07916 Subjects: Gnadenhutten Massacre; Moravian Church--Missions--Ohio; American Indians in Ohio Places: Tuscarawas County (Ohio)
Description: This black-and-white illustration portrays the death of Richard Butler (1743-1791), frontiersman and military leader, on November 4, 1791, during St. Clair’s Defeat (also known as the Battle of the Wabash). It comes from an engraving in "History of the Discovery of America," written by Henry Trumbull and first published in 1811. The uniformed Butler is reclining against a tree, his right hand raised in supplication or in self-defense, as an American Indian man armed with a tomahawk approaches.
Butler was born in Dublin, Ireland, and at age five came to North America with his father. They settled in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Richard Butler had a long career in the military, serving an ensign in Bouquet's Expedition in 1764 and an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He participated in the Battle of Saratoga and eventually attained the rank of brigadier-general. In 1783 the Confederation Congress appointed him to be an Indian commissioner. He helped to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois tribe, determining their western boundary with the United States.
In 1785 the Confederation Congress sent George Rogers Clark, Arthur Lee, and Butler to the Ohio Country to negotiate a treaty with the Delaware, the Wyandot, the Ottawa, and the Chippewa. Treaty negotiations took place at Fort McIntosh. Most of the tribal representatives were younger chiefs who did not have the legal authority to negotiate a treaty; despite this, American commissioners pressed for a treaty. After several weeks of negotiations and the consumption of a lot of alcohol provided by the Americans, the American Indians signed the Treaty of Fort McIntosh on January 21, 1785. Tribal leaders agreed that they lived under the American government and could not form alliances with any other powers. They were forced to relinquish their lands in southern and eastern Ohio, and were confined to the western corner of modern-day Ohio. Many American Indians rejected the treaty. The Shawnee were especially opposed to the treaty because they lost claim to all of their lands in southwestern Ohio.
Later that year, the Confederation Congress sent Butler and Samuel Holden Parsons to negotiate a new treaty with the Shawnee. The negotiations took place at Fort Finney near what is now Cincinnati. The Shawnee refused to give up their land, but Butler and Parsons threatened them with attack. Shawnee chiefs, fearing the power of the American military, agreed to the Treaty of Fort Finney on February 1, 1786. The Shawnee agreed to relinquish all claims to their land in southwestern Ohio and southern Indiana, and would move to the land set aside for them in the Treaty of Fort McIntosh. The Americans also promised to keep white squatters from settling on land reserved exclusively for the tribes.
Butler spent the remainder of the 1780s as the superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Northern District of America. He also served in the Pennsylvania legislature. Butler was severely wounded during St. Clair's Defeat, a major confrontation between U.S. military and American Indians. The American soldiers fled the battlefield, leaving Butler behind. He was killed by a tomahawk blow to the head.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06995 Subjects: Butler, Richard, 1743-1791; Kekionga, Battle of, Ohio, 1791; American Revolutionary War, 1775-1783; American Indians--Warfare Places: Ohio; Northwest Territory
Description: Three photographs document events at the 1947 Treaty Camporee held in Greenville, Ohio. The first photograph was taken at the Altar of Peace, a monument built to commemorate the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. The second shows men reviewing the Treaty Camporee Pageant program. The reverse identifies various attendees as; standing, left to right: unidentified, John O. Marsh, Edwin C. Zepp, Fred D. Coppock, unidentified; seated, left to right: Mayor William Reed, Guy D. Hawley, Dr. F. C. Barr and E. L. Kohnle. The photographs measure 8" by 10" (20.32 by 25.4 cm). In 1795, the Treaty of Greenville ended the Indian Wars in Ohio. General Anthony Wayne defeated the American Indian confederacy led by Blue Jacket at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Abandoned by the British at Fort Miami, the American Indians agreed to a peace settlement. A year later, representatives from twelve tribes met at Greenville, in present-day Darke County, to negotiate with Wayne. Among the leaders were Little Turtle of the Miamis, Tarhe of the Wyandots, and Blue Jacket and Black Hoof of the Shawnees. The treaty confined the American Indians to northwestern Ohio. Despite Wayne's hope that the treaty would hold "as long as the woods grow and waters run," American Indians were removed to the West by the mid-nineteenth century. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3212_3831979_001 Subjects: Military Ohio; American Indians in Ohio; Sports; Arts and Entertainment; Treaty of Greenville; Celebrations; Anniversaries Places: Greenville (Ohio); Darke County (Ohio)
Boy Scouts at the Greenville Treaty Camporee photographsSave
Description: Seven photographs document events of the Treaty Camporee held in Greenville, Ohio in June 1947. Boy Scouts can be seen carrying supplies, pitching tents, reading the scouting manual and relaxing at camp sites. The photographs measure 8" by 10" (20.32 by 25.4 cm). In 1795, the Treaty of Greenville ended the Indian Wars in Ohio. General Anthony Wayne defeated the American Indian confederacy led by Blue Jacket at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Abandoned by the British at Fort Miami, the American Indians agreed to a peace settlement. A year later, representatives from twelve tribes met at Greenville, in present-day Darke County, to negotiate with Wayne. Among the leaders were Little Turtle of the Miamis, Tarhe of the Wyandots, and Blue Jacket and Black Hoof of the Shawnees. The treaty confined the American Indians to northwestern Ohio. Despite Wayne's hope that the treaty would hold "as long as the woods grow and waters run," American Indians were removed to the West by the mid-nineteenth century. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3211_3831349_001 Subjects: American Indians in Ohio; Sports; Arts and Entertainment; Camping; Tents; Treaty of Greenville; Boys; Boy Scouts of America Places: Greenville (Ohio); Darke County (Ohio)
Treaty of Greenville Sesquicentennial Commemoration photographsSave
Description: Three photographs depict part of the commemoration in honor of the 150th anniversary of the Treaty of Greenville in August 1945. The first photograph shows the commemoration headquarters, housed in a 100-year-old cabin that was reconstructed in the Greenville town square. Several Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society (now the Ohio Historical Society) board members can be seen in front of the cabin, from left to right: Harlow Lindley, secretary; A. C. Johnson, president; and Henry C. Shetrone, director. The Treaty of Greenville was displayed in the cabin August 1-3. Two soldiers can be seen guarding the treaty in the second image. Other events included a parade, an appreciation dinner for Howard Chandler Christy and the unveiling of the his painting "The Signing of the Treaty of Greene Ville." These photographs measure 5" by 7" (12.7 by 17.8 cm). The Treaty of Greenville is part of the collections of the National Archives. This event was the first time the document had been removed from the archives of the United States. The treaty bears not only the signatures and seals of General Wayne and the Indian chiefs but also includes the ratification of the United States Senate signed by President George Washington. Mrs. Elizabeth E. Hammer was the official custodian of the document. She accompanied the treaty on its journey from Washington D.C. to the headquarters of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society in Columbus, then to the office of Governor Frank J. Lausche, and then to the Sesquicentennial Celebration at Greenville. In 1795, the Treaty of Greenville ended the Indian Wars in Ohio. The American Indian confederacy led by Blue Jacket was defeated by General Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Abandoned by the British at Fort Miami, the American Indians agreed to a peace settlement. A year later, representatives from twelve tribes met at Greenville, in present-day Darke County, to negotiate with Wayne. Among the leaders were Little Turtle of the Miamis, Tarhe of the Wyandots, and Blue Jacket and Black Hoof of the Shawnees. The treaty confined the American Indians to northwestern Ohio. Despite Wayne's hope that the treaty would hold "as long as the woods grow and waters run," American Indians were removed to the West by the mid-nineteenth century. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3213_3832005_001 Subjects: Military Ohio; American Indians in Ohio; Ohio Government; Arts and Entertainment; Treaty of Greenville; Treaties; Celebrations; Soldiers; Guards; Anniversaries; Ohio Historical Society Places: Greenville (Ohio); Darke County (Ohio)
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