Description: This is a lithograph of an oil painting of Lappawinsoe, chief of the Lenape (Delaware) Tribe, published in volume one of "History of the Indian Tribes of North America" by Thomas Loraine McKenney and James Hall.
Lappawinsoe is most commonly known for his involvement in the Walking Purchase Agreement, a treaty agreement between the Lenape and Thomas Penn, son of Pennsylvania colony's founder William Penn, in which the Lenape were unfairly forced to relinquish 1,200,000 acres of their land in 1737.
Thomas McKenny served as the United States Superintendent of Indian Trade in 1821 and commissioned portraits of American Indian leaders who visited Washington D.C. to negotiate treaties with the United States federal government in order to to preserve the memory and history of America's native peoples. After the paintings were completed, he commissioned lithographs of the 300 paintings and compiled them into three volumes of "History of the Indian Tribes of North America" where a short biography accompanied each portrait. The paintings were housed at the Smithsonian Institution Building, commonly referred to as the Castle, and in 1868 all but five were destroyed in a devastating fire. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: V970_97M199h_v1_p405_LapPaWinSoe Subjects: Lenape (Delaware) Tribe; American Indian history; American Indians--Portraits; American Indians in Ohio; American Indian tribal leaders Places: Washington D.C.
Description: Portrait photograph of Black Bear, a chief of the Lakota people, seen posing with a pipe and wearing a feather in his scalplock. His hair is braided in strips of cloth whose ends are draped over his right forearm. He wears a scarf or neckerchief tied at the front and held by a shell-like clasp.
According to an article in "Nebraska History," the magazine of the Nebraska Historical Society, the photographer who took this image likely was Daniel S. Mitchell. He left his studio and family in Boston and departed for the Black Hills area around 1874. He had a photography studio in Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, from 1876 to 1877. He formed a partnership with another photographer, Joseph H. McGowan, 1877, that was supported by Gatchel & Hyatt, a firm in St. Louis, Missouri. (Gatchel & Hyatt also had branches in Louisville and in Cincinnati.)
The two men worked as traveling photographers who set up a tent studio in towns along the Union Pacific Railroad route. In early fall 1877 Mitchell is believed to have traveled to the Red Cloud Agency in northwestern Nebraska and photographed portraits of Dakota and Arapahoe Indian chiefs. This portrait of Black Bear is included in that group. Mitchell, McGowan, & Co. settled in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1878, but the partnership dissolved in the fall of that year.
The back of this card reads: "Mitchell & McGowan, Traveling Photographers. Headquarters, Gatchell & Hyatt, No. 11 South Fifth Street. St. Louis, Mo." A line written in pencil reads: " J. F. Bush 1882." The name "Black Bear" also is penciled on the the back.
The Smithsonian Institution's National Anthropological Archives has a undated stereoscopic photograph titled "Twenty-four Portraits of Chiefs, Most in Partial Native Dress with Pipes." The photographic, which resembles a small portrait gallery, includes an image of Black Bear in a slightly different pose. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL03833 Subjects: American Indians--Portraits; American Indian history and society; Clothing and dress; Oglala Indians; United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Red Cloud Agency Places: St. Louis (Missouri)
Description: This is a lithograph of an oil painting of Shawnee leader Ca-Ta-He-Cas-Sa, or Black Hoof, published in "History of the Indian Tribes of North America" by Thomas Loraine McKenney and James Hall. Little is known about Black Hoof's early years. Allied with the French, he was present at the defeat of Edward Braddock during the French and Indian War. He did fight at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and represented the Shawnee at the signing of the Treaty of Greenville. After this, Black Hoof became convinced that the Indians had no hope against the whites except to adopt their customs. Using his influence with the Shawnee, Black Hoof encouraged the Shawnee to adopt the whites' way of living. By 1808, his followers established farms at Wapakoneta. Conflicts between the Shawnee and settlers continued. In 1826, Black Hoof led several hundred Shawnee people to the Kansas territory. After leading his followers to Kansas, Black Hoof returned to Wapakoneta and died there in 1831.
Thomas Loraine McKenney (1785–1859) served as the U.S. Superintendent of Indian trade from 1816–1822 and superintendent of Indian affairs from 1824-1830. James Hall (1793–1868) was a lawyer, writer, and editor who lived in Cincinnati, Ohio from 1833 until his death in 1868. Their book was illustrated with portraits from the Indian gallery in the Department of War in Washington, D.C. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL02908 Subjects: American Indian history; American Indians--Portraits; American Indian tribal leaders; Iroquois Confederacy; American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) Places: Washington D.C.
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