Description: These photographs, taken between July 31 and August 2, 1939, were compiled in a scrapbook as a report to the Ohio adjutant general by two National Guard officers, Brigadier General L. S. Conelly and Captain L. J. Abele. The officers were sent to the Fisher Body Plant in Cleveland as observers for the Ohio National Guard during the 1939 strike at the plant. The back of each photograph is labeled with a number and a brief caption. Images 2 and 57 include Eliot Ness, who was Cleveland's director of public safety at the time of the strike. Before coming to Cleveland, Ness successfully battled mobster Al Capone in Chicago. His book, The Untouchables, was published in 1957. Other images in this collection include confrontations between police and strikers, non-striking workers inside the plant and police and fire officials at the scene. The photographs measure 6" x 8" (15.24 x 20.32 cm). Fisher Body Plant opened in 1921 to build car bodies for the Cleveland Automobile Company and the Chandler Motor Car Company. It became a division of General Motors (GM) in 1926. Several major strikes occurred in the automobile industry in the 1930s, as workers were asked to work for less and less due to the effects of the Great Depression. In 1937, workers at the Fisher Body Plant began a sit-down strike that spread to the GM factory in Michigan. The strike ended when GM agreed to recognize the United Auto Workers. During World War II the Fisher Body plant made parts for tanks, guns and airplanes. The plant closed in 1982. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om1526_4400787_003 Subjects: Ohio Government; Military Ohio; Business and Labor; Strikes; Factories; Automobile industry workers; International Union, United Automobile Workers of America (CIO); Ohio. National Guard Places: Cleveland (Ohio); Cuyahoga County (Ohio)
Description: Alexander Winton (1860-1932) was a Scottish-born American and pioneer automobile manufacturer, seen here driving his Winton automobile. He settled in Cleveland, Ohio, and started the Winton Motor Carriage Company in 1897, with his automobile credited as the first commercial sale of automobile in the United States. He patented over one hundred designs and even gave Henry Ford access to his steering designs before a race. Ford and his assembly line out-produced Winton's custom-made cars and put him out of business in 1924. Winton eventually focused purely on engine design, and his Winton Engine Company was bought by General Motors in 1930. He died in Cleveland, Ohio. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL04079 Subjects: Ohio Economy--Science and Technology; Automobile industry; Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Business enterprises--Ohio--Cleveland Places: Cleveland (Ohio); Cuyahoga County (Ohio)
Description: This photograph, taken in the 1960s, documents four models of Jeeps manufactured by Willys-Overland Company (later Kaiser Jeep Corporation) of Toledo between 1940 and 1963. On the left is the MA model, which was built in small quantities in 1940 and 1941. The Jeep second from the left is the MB model. It was mass-produced for U.S. and Allied forces during World War II (1941-1945). 368, 714 of the Jeeps were built. Second from the right is the M38, which was produced between 1950 and 1952 for troops serving in the Korean War (1950-1952). On the right is the M38A1, manufactured between 1952 and 1963. The photograph is 8" x 10" (20.32 x 25.4 cm). Willys-Overland was the second-largest automobile manufacturer in the United States in the 1950s, employing one-third of Toledo's work force. Barely surviving the Great Depression of the 1930s, the company produced Jeeps for military use in World War II. The Willys-Overland Company became a part of DaimlerChrysler in 1998 and continued to produce SUVs (sport utility vehicles) for the general public. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3262_4549698_001 Subjects: Transportation; Business and Labor; Automobiles; Automobile industry; Jeep Corporation; Willys-Overland Motors, Inc. Places: Toledo (Ohio); Lucas County (Ohio)
Description: This image shows a replica of the First Cash Register as made by Charles F. Kettering in Dayton, Ohio. Kettering graduated from The Ohio State University in 1904 with a degree in engineering. After obtaining his diploma, Kettering moved to Dayton, where he obtained a job at the National Cash Register Company. There, he helped to develop the first electric cash register.
Kettering was hired as the head of General Motors's new research division and became a vice president in the company in 1920. Kettering continued to develop new technology for automobiles throughout his life, including spark plugs, leaded gasoline, the automatic transmission, and four-wheel brakes. Under his leadership, General Motors also developed diesel engines, safety glass, and the refrigerant Freon.
In 1945, he and General Motors president Alfred Sloan established the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, which was located in New York City. Kettering received numerous honors for his contributions to technological research. He was awarded dozens of honorary doctorates and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Kettering died in November 1958. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06523 Subjects: Kettering, Charles, 1876-1958; Automobile industry; National Cash Register Company Places: Dayton (Ohio); Montgomery County (Ohio)
Description: This illustration shows a range of passenger cars manufactured by Willys Motors Inc., a division of the Willys-Overland Company of Toledo, Ohio, between 1903 and 1955. The changes in the automobile built by this auto-maker are indicative of the changes in automobile technology during the first half of the 20th century.
Willys-Overland was the second-largest automobile manufacturer in the United States in the 1950s, employing one-third of Toledo's work force. After struggling during the Great Depression of the 1930s, the company began producing Jeeps for military use in World War II. The Willys-Overland Company later became a part of DaimlerChrysler in 1998 and continued to produce SUVs (sport utility vehicles) for the general public. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SC172_02 Subjects: Automobiles; Automobile industry; Willys-Overland Motors, Inc.; Manufacturing industries--Ohio; Transportation--Ohio--History; Places: Toledo (Ohio); Lucas County (Ohio)
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