Description: Plat of Ohio's capital city, titled "A plat of the town of Columbus, laid off by order of the Assembly, for the seat of Government of the state of Ohio, 1817." Text at the bottom reads "Returned to the Assembly sitting in Chillicothe in the 12th month A.D. 1812 by Joel Wright Commissioner." This is a photostatic copy of the 1825 map which is a facsimilie of Wright's original 1812 map.
This early plat of Columbus shows the Scioto River joined by the "Whetstone Branch," now the Olentangy River. West of the river is Franklinton, and "Prairies containing about 150 acres." Notable locations east of the river include the Public Square (location of the Ohio Statehouse) and the Ohio Penitentiary. The city was first laid out in 1812 and incorporated in 1816. Columbus was not the original capital, but the state legislature chose to move the state government there after its location for a short time at both Chillicothe and Zanesville. Columbus was chosen as the site for the new capital because of its central location within the state and access by way of major transportation routes (primarily rivers) at that time. Prior to the state legislature's decision in 1812, Columbus did not exist.
The city was designed from the first as the state's capital, preparing itself for its role in Ohio's political, economic, and social life. In the years between first groundbreaking and the actual movement of the capital in 1816, Columbus grew significantly. The town was surveyed, and various city lots were put up for sale. By 1813, a penitentiary had been built, and by the following year the first church, school, and newspaper had been established. Construction on the statehouse began in 1814 as well. Columbus grew quickly in its first few years, having a population of seven hundred people by 1815. It officially became the county seat in 1824, and by 1834, the population of Columbus was four thousand people, officially elevating it to "city" status. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: MAP_VFM_0109_2 Subjects: Columbus (Ohio)--History--19th century; Ohio Statehouse (Columbus, Ohio); Capitals; Ohio History--Settlement and Early Statehood; Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Description: Photograph showing prisoners in formation at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio, ca. 1860. The Ohio Penitentiary opened on Spring Street in 1834, and continued to house prisoners until 1979. The state had built a small prison in Columbus in 1813, but as the state's population grew, the earlier facility was not unable to handle the volume of prisoners sentenced by the courts. The Ohio Penitentiary in the nineteenth century reflected the common belief that prison was more for punishment than for rehabilitation. Conditions within the prison were primitive. Prisoners first slept on straw mattresses, although eventually beds were built. Food was very simple, usually consisting of cornbread, beans, and bacon. Prisoners were required to work in one of the prison industries, which made everything from harnesses and shoes to barrels and brooms. This image comes from a collection assembled in March 1929 by the F. & R. Lazarus Company to mark its 78th anniversary. The photographs and materials assembled in a scrapbook represented the origins and growth of Columbus since 1803. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: P92_B01_F04_58 Subjects: Columbus (Ohio)--History--19th century; Ohio Penitentiary (Columbus, Ohio); Ohio History--State and Local Government--Corrections; Prisoners and prisons; Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Description: Photograph showing the Ohio Statehouse, at the corner of Broad and High Streets, in 1879. The capitol building was built between 1839 and 1861 in the Greek Revival style, resembling the Parthenon in Greece. One of the best examples of Greek Revival civic architecture in the United States, it is also one of the oldest working statehouses in the nation. It is a masonry building, consisting largely of brick and Columbus limestone quarried from the west banks of the Scioto River. This image comes from a collection assembled in March 1929 by the F. & R. Lazarus Company to mark its 78th anniversary. The photographs and materials assembled in a scrapbook represented the origins and growth of Columbus since 1803. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: P92_B01_F02_25 Subjects: Columbus (Ohio)--History--19th century; Ohio Government; Architecture; Ohio Statehouse (Columbus, Ohio)--Pictorial works Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Description: Photograph of a home along North High Street in Columbus, Ohio, identified as the Harbarger house, located at the intersection of West Como and High. This image was included in a "Memory Book" compiled by Mrs. H. V. Cottrell, historian for the Clinton League (sometimes called the Clinton Welfare League) from 1938-1943. The book shows the development of the Clintonville neighborhood of Columbus and records the history of the League. The Clinton League was a women's group founded in 1912 to promote child welfare and later general welfare in Columbus, but which was based in and primarily focused on the area of Clintonville. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: P285_MB1_016 Subjects: Clintonville (Ohio); Clinton League; Women--Charities; Houses; Columbus (Ohio)--History--19th century; Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Unveiling of McKinley Memorial at Ohio StatehouseSave
Description: Photograph taken of crowds during the unveiling of the McKinley Memorial on the grounds of the Ohio Statehouse in Columbus, Ohio, September 14th, 1906. William McKinley (1843-1901) was born in Niles, Ohio, but lived much of his life in Canton. He served as a U.S. Senator for Stark County and as Governor of Ohio before being elected president in 1896, and had just been elected to a second term in 1901 when he was assassinated by Leon Czolgosz in Buffalo, New York. The memorial, erected on the west side of Capitol Square and constructed of bronze and granite by sculptor Hermon Atkins MacNeil, drew over 50,000 people to its unveiling. Also present at the ceremony was guest of honor Alice Roosevelt Longworth, daughter of McKinley's vice president, Theodore Roosevelt. This image comes from a collection assembled in March 1929 by the F. & R. Lazarus Company to mark its 78th anniversary. The photographs and materials assembled in a scrapbook represented the origins and growth of Columbus since 1803. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: P92_B01_F10_185 Subjects: Columbus (Ohio)--History--19th century; McKinley, William, 1843-1901; Presidents--Death and burial; Ohio Statehouse (Columbus, Ohio) Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
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