Description: Caption reads: "Hayes Mansion, Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio (Sandusky Co - District 9). Home of Rutherford B. Hayes, president of U. S., maintained today as it was when Hayes lived here during the latter part of his life. With the Hayes Memorial and Spiegel Grove, the surrounding grounds, if forms a State Park."
Hayes House, built in 1859, is a large red brick Victorian style structure in located at 1337 Hayes Avenue in Fremont Ohio. It stands in Spiegel Grove State Park, the former Hayes Estate. It was the residence of the former President from 1873 to 1893. The 2-story mansion, constructed between 1859 and 1863 has 8 bedrooms and a large veranda. The home was remodeled twice, in 1880 (adding a large library and an impressive staircase leading to a rooftop observation area, as well as many other improvements) and 1889 (replacing and enlarging one wing). Hayes was the nineteenth (19th) President of the United States, serving from 1877-1881. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B02F02_001_1 Subjects: State Parks--Ohio--Pictorial works.; Spiegel Grove (Fremont, Ohio); Hayes Presidential Center (Fremont, Ohio); Rutherford B. Hayes Memorial Library (Fremont, Ohio); Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893 Places: Fremont (Ohio); Sandusky County (Ohio)
Description: Handwritten on reverse: "Hayes Memorial"
The Hayes Memorial was built in 1915, when the Hayes estate was turned over to the state and was expanded in 1922 and again in 1968.
The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center is a complex comprising several buildings related to the life and presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. Located in Fremont, Ohio, the center comprises the Rutherford B. Hayes Museum and Library and Spiegel Grove, an estate encompassing the Hayes home, residence to several generations of the Hayes family. Opened in 1916, the Rutherford B. Hayes Center Library was the first presidential library and one of only three for a 19th-century president. The Center is supported by the private foundations, the Ohio Historical Society and Hayes Presidential Center Inc.
The library holds the 12,000 volume personal library of Rutherford B. Hayes, as well as materials relating to his military and political career, particularly of his presidency from 1877 to 1881. It also contains 70,000 volumes plus newspapers and journals from the time of the Civil War to the eve of World War I. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B09F10_043_1 Subjects: State Parks--Ohio--Pictorial works.; Spiegel Grove (Fremont, Ohio); Hayes Presidential Center (Fremont, Ohio); Rutherford B. Hayes Memorial Library (Fremont, Ohio); Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893 Places: Fremont (Ohio); Sandusky County (Ohio)
Description: This photograph is an exterior view of Spiegel Grove, the former home of U.S. president Rutherford B. Hayes, in Fremont, Ohio. A portion of another building is visible on the photograph's right side.
Spiegel Grove is the former home of President Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1822-1893). The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center currently occupies the site, which is open to the public under the direction of the Ohio Historical Society.
Spiegel Grove was constructed from 1859-1863. (“Spiegel” is the German word for “mirror,” and the home is named after pools of water that form on the estate’s grounds after a rain.) The home’s original owner was Sardis Birchard, Hayes’s uncle and guardian, who used Spiegel Grove as a summer residence. Hayes became Spiegel Grove’s owner in 1873, and he made it his permanent home. Upon completion of his presidency in 1881, Hayes expanded the home to make room for his 12,000-volume library, to provide additional room for guests, and also to install indoor plumbing. In 1889, Hayes ordered the construction of another addition to make room for his children and grandchildren who commonly visited. This final addition created a thirty-one-room mansion. Both Hayes and his wife, Lucy Hayes, died at Spiegel Grove and are interred on the grounds.
Spiegel Grove remained in the Hayes family until the first decade of the 1900s, when the family deeded the property to the State of Ohio. In 1916, a museum and library opened on the site, commemorating Hayes’s political and military contributions to Ohio and to the United States. This was the first presidential library commemorating a United States president. Spiegel Grove is on the National Register of Historic Places.
This image of Spiegel Grove was among the photographs produced by the Federal Works Progress Administration (WPA) between 1935 and 1943.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06393 Subjects: Spiegel Grove (Fremont, Ohio); Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893; United States. Work Progress Administration; National Register of Historic Places; Fremont (Ohio) Places: Fremont (Ohio); Sandusky County (Ohio)
Description: This is a photograph of the Court House in Fremont in Sandusky County, Ohio. The building was designed by architect Cyrus Williams and built in 1844. The building is at 100 North Park Street.
The brick and stone building features Grecian style architecture with Doric sandstone style columns. During the expansion in 1933, the original court house was preserved.
During the early years of his life, U. S. President Rutherford B Hayes practiced law at the court house. He filed a petition to have the town name changed from Lower Sandusky to Fremont in 1849. The reason was the number of towns within 100 miles radius of the Sandusky River's source, Lake Erie bearing the name Sandusky.
Sandusky County was named for the American Indian name for "cold water". View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B06F07_001_1 Subjects: Fremont (Ohio); Places: Fremont (Ohio); Sandusky County (Ohio)
Description: Inscription on plaque in front of cannon reads: "Old Betsy. Cannon used by Major George Croghan against the British and Indians in the defense of Fort Stephenson. Aug. 1st and 2nd 1813."
This image shows "Old Betsy" at Fort Stephenson at located at 423 Croghan Street in Fremont, Ohio, in front of the Birchard Library. Four boys standing nearby, studiously reading.
Not long after the War of 1812 began, George Croghan became commander of Fort Stephenson. Located on the Sandusky River, the fort was important to Ohio's defense against the British. The fort consisted of three blockhouses inside a rectangular stockade. Croghan worked hard to increase the fort's defensive capabilities. General William Henry Harrison believed that the fort was located at a difficult place to defend and ordered Croghan to abandon it. But Croghan argued that, if his forces withdrew, Native Americans would cut his men off from the rest of the army. Before the two men could resolve their differences, British troops attacked the fort in August 1813.
Despite the fact that Croghan had only approximately 150 troops under his command, the Americans were successful in holding off the British assault. In fact, Croghan's men were so successful that they crippled the British forces -- not one officer was left standing, and one-fifth of the British force was either killed, wounded, or missing in action. The Americans forced the enemy to withdraw from the area. The victory at Fort Stephenson came at an important time during the war, as the United States had few military successes. In addition to raising American morale, it also made Croghan famous across the country. President James Madison promoted him to the rank of lieutenant colonel as a reward for his service. Years later, the United States Congress voted to award him a gold medal for his success during the War of 1812.
The site of Fort Stephenson is now part of the city of Fremont, Ohio. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B09F10_041_1 Subjects: Cannons; Croghan, George, 1791-1849; Fort Stephenson (Ohio) Places: Fremont (Ohio); Sandusky County (Ohio)
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