Description: The S-Bridge and Ohio Historical Marker for the S-Bridge in Muskingum County. It is like many others on the National Road. The historical marker reads "Coaches, Conestoga wagons, herds of livestock, pioneers on foot or horseback, peddlers, soldiers, beggars - these and many have crossed this bridge on the National Road since 1830. Like many others on the road, the bridge was built with well-cut stone and good mortar in the shape of an "S" because it was easier to erect than one thrown straight across an oblique stream." View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06877 Subjects: Bridges--Ohio; Muskingum County (Ohio); New Concord (Ohio) Places: New Concord (Ohio); Muskingum County (Ohio)
Description: This illustration of the Brush Creek tablet comes from "History of Muskingum County, Ohio, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Pioneers" by J. F. Everhart, 1882.
The Brush Creek Tablet is a flat, sandstone slab measuring 14 inches long by 12 inches wide and four inches thick. It was discovered during the excavation of the Brush Creek Mound (south of Zanesville) between 1879 and 1880 by John F. Everhart and the Brush Creek Historical Association.
When first discovered, it appeared to be a stone with several circular depressions. Such artifacts are called cupstones, or pitted stones, and the depressions appear to have been used for cracking nuts or grinding paint pigments. Two months after the artifact was discovered, Everhart announced that the stone was inscribed with “hieroglyphics” - “chiefly Greek, commingled with Phoenician and Etruscan.” He reported that the tablet was buried alongside an eight-foot-tall female skeleton and claimed that this proved “there were giants in those days.”
The Brush Creek Tablet was shown to be a fraud when J. P. Egan brought a lawsuit against Everhart for failing to pay him the money he was promised for helping to excavate the mound and for making a map for the "History of Muskingum County." During the court proceedings, Marshall Cooper, another member of the excavation team, testified that he had been promised $15.00 to carve the inscription on the tablet and to give it “the appearance of ancient work.”
The Brush Creek Tablet is an example of the many such frauds created during the 1800s, such as the Newark Holy Stones, when the question of who built the ancient mounds of the Ohio Valley had not yet been answered. Many people at that time believed that the American Indians were not capable of building the mounds and therefore they must have been built by a lost race. By the end of the 1800s, however, archaeologists had proven that the ancestors of American Indians had, indeed, built the mounds. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: 977_191Ev27_BrushCreek Subjects: Excavations (Archaeology)--Ohio; Archaeological fraud; Forgeries; Ohio History--Natural and Native Ohio; Places: Muskingum County (Ohio)
Description: This color image shows a stone marker denoting Zane's Trace, a travel route, and Treber Inn, which provided lodging for travelers during the early 19th century. The marker, made of pinkish stone, reads: "Zane Trace, Ohio's first highway and mail route authorized by Congress in 1796 / Marked and cleared in 1797 by Col. Ebenezer Zane / A blazed trail, it became the route of the old stage line from Maysville to Wheeling used by noted statesmen to and from the Southwest and Washington.
"Tremor Inn, Erected in 1797. Became "traveler's rest" in 1798 / Here, for over sixty years, distinguished guests and weary foot travelers found entertainment / Nearby, in 1793, Asahel Edgington was slain by Indians / the first white man killed in Adams County.
"Erected by Adams County Historical Society 1933."
Zane's Trace was an early road in the Northwest Territory that connected Wheeling, Virginia, to Limestone, Kentucky (present-day Maysville). It was a major road in early Ohio until well after the War of 1812. In 1796, Ebenezer Zane petitioned Congress for permission to build a road through the region, with the stipulation that the American government would grant him land where the road crossed the Muskingum, Hocking, and Scioto Rivers. The government agreed to his terms and required the road to be open by January 1, 1797. It was widely believed that a road would encourage increased trade and settlement in Ohio.
Zane's Trace was more a trail than a road. Zane used existing Native American trails wherever possible and cut down trees to create a primitive path. Tomepomehala, an Indian guide, helped Zane plot the road. Prior to Ohio's statehood, Zane's Trace was not accessible by wagon. It was so narrow and rough that it was only passable on foot or on horseback. Zane built ferries at each of the river crossings and profited from the travel over the road. A small town began to develop where the ferry was located at the mouth of the Licking River. It came to be known as Zanesville.
After Ohio became a state in 1803, the state legislature set aside money to improve the road. The goal was to make Zane's Trace accessible to wagons. By 1804, trees had been cut down to make the road twenty feet wide. Logs were laid across marshy areas to create corduroy roads, and several bridges were built. It was now possible to travel by wagon from Wheeling to Chillicothe, although many tree stumps were still standing in the middle of the road. People who traveled the road began to refer to it by a number of different names, including the Wheeling Road, the Wheeling-Limestone Road, or just the Limestone Road, rather than Zane's Trace.
Zane's Trace encouraged significant economic and population growth in the Northwest Territory and the young state of Ohio. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06963 Subjects: Historical marker; Zane's Trace (Ohio); Zane, Ebenezer, 1747-1812; Transportation--Ohio--History; Northwest Territory; Adams County (Ohio); Muskingum County (Ohio) Places: New Concord (Ohio); Muskingum County (Ohio); Adams County (Ohio)
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