Description: The Ohio National Guard Armory in Marietta. The early 19th Century saw the creation of what was then the Ohio Militia, this would be the predecessor to what is today the Ohio National Guard. Militias were quite common in this era, and served a purpose much like the National Guard does today, though militias were more localized and served only their own state rather than being a national organization able to be sent abroad. Militias were essential during this time period with the ever looming threat of being attacked by the native people of the region, and the possibility of a rebellion. In the aftermath of the War of 1812, in which Ohioans participated, the militia was not nearly as needed as it once was. The resistance of the native people had been broken in Ohio, and for a time things were quiet in the United States as a whole except for the war with Mexico during the 1840s. The militia had been in disuse for some time until the American Civil War plunged a now divided nation into chaos and war. Suddenly there was now a need for great numbers of men to serve as combatants and defend their country. Despite the waning effectiveness of the militia over the years, they were once again organized and fought against the southern rebellion. Once again, things became relatively quiet for Ohioans and there was little need to have a trained force of men ready at any given time to defend their state, as little threat existed to Ohio. Things changed when the 20th century came around, the National Guard was formed to replace the state militias, once again in a state of disrepair. With the creation of the National Guard, what was once simply meant to protect the state was now able to be sent throughout the country or even overseas if need be. Today many Ohioans proudly serve in the National Guard and continue the tradition of the Ohio militia. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06737 Subjects: Ohio. National Guard--Facilities; Ohio. National Guard; Ohio. Militia; Ohio. Militia--History--Civil War, 1861-1865 Places: Marietta (Ohio); Washington County (Ohio); Ohio
George K. Nash, Charles Dick and staff, National Guard Encampment photographSave
Description: Postcard with image of Ohio governor George K. Nash (1842-1904), Charles F.W. Dick (then a Congressman from Ohio and also a major general in the Ohio National Guard), and staff at Ohio National Guard encampment, Newark, Ohio. The picture shows a group of men, the majority in military uniform, standing in front of two tents in a wooded area. Dick (1858-1945), chair of the House Committee on Militia Affairs, co-sponsored the Militia Act of 1903 (also called the Dick Act), which created the National Guard from the organized state militias. The legislation gave state militias federal status and funding; in turn, the U.S. Army now had a pool of reserve units that could be mobilized for various emergencies and military needs. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL05890 Subjects: National Guard; Ohio--Militia; Nash, George Kilbon, 1842-1904; Dick, Charles, 1858-1945; Ohio History--Military Ohio Places: Newark (Ohio); Licking County (Ohio)
Description: This photograph shows the National Guard clearing debris after the 1974 tornado. On April 3, 1974, an F5 category tornado struck Xenia, Ohio. The tornado that struck Xenia was just one of at least 148 tornados that occurred in the South and Midwest in a twenty-four hour period. This was the worst outbreak of tornados recorded in the twentieth century.
The tornado that struck Xenia had maximum winds of three hundred miles per hour. It destroyed more than one thousand homes and businesses. Hardly any buildings remained standing in Xenia's downtown. Thirty-three people died in the storm, with approximately another 1,150 people injured. President Richard Nixon visited Xenia a week following the tornado. He stated, "It's the worst disaster I've ever seen."
Xenia rebuilt quickly. By April 3, 1975, eighty percent of the destroyed homes and forty percent of the businesses had been rebuilt. It would take until 1984 for all structures to be repaired or rebuilt, but as bumper stickers that appeared within days of the tornado stated, "Xenia Lives!" View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL07696 Subjects: Tornadoes--Ohio--Xenia; Tornado damage; Natural disasters; Xenia (Ohio)--History; National Guard Places: Xenia (Ohio); Greene County (Ohio)
National Guard Cleaning Up After Xenia Tornado photographsSave
Description: Three photographs show the National Guard cleaning up debris after the 1974 Xenia tornado. The slides measure 2" x 2" (5.08 x 5.08 cm). On April 4, 1974 an F5 tornado (the most intense tornado, reaching speeds of over 261 miles per hour) hit Xenia. It touched down at 4:30 p.m. nine miles southwest of Xenia and entered town at 4:40 p.m. Of 25,000 residents, 33 were killed and 1600 were injured. More than 1400 buildings were damaged or destroyed and total estimated damages exceeded $400 million. Xenia was declared a national disaster area, and the American Red Cross, as well as several hundred Ohio National Guard troops, moved into Xenia for several weeks to assist with the rescue and clean up. The Xenia tornado was the deadliest and most damaging of storms that comprised the "Super Outbreak" that occurred April 3 and 4, 1974, when 148 storms hit thirteen states. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3127_3729294_008 Subjects: Military Ohio; Climate and Weather; Tornadoes; Debris; National Guard; Soldiers Places: Xenia (Ohio); Greene County (Ohio)
National Guard Armory Following Xenia Tornado photographsSave
Description: Five photographs document damage to the home of the National Guard Unit Company A, 166th Infantry following the Xenia tornado of 1974. The slides measure 2" x 2" (5.08 x 5.08 cm). On April 4, 1974 an F5 tornado (the most intense tornado, reaching speeds of over 261 miles per hour) hit Xenia. It touched down at 4:30 p.m. nine miles southwest of Xenia and entered town at 4:40 p.m. Of 25,000 residents, 33 were killed and 1600 were injured. More than 1400 buildings were damaged or destroyed and total estimated damages exceeded $400 million. Xenia was declared a national disaster area, and the American Red Cross, as well as several hundred Ohio National Guard troops, moved into Xenia for several weeks to assist with the rescue and clean up. The Xenia tornado was the deadliest and most damaging of storms that comprised the "Super Outbreak" that occurred April 3 and 4, 1974, when 148 storms hit thirteen states. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3127_3729308_015 Subjects: Military Ohio; Climate and Weather; Tornadoes; Debris; National Guard Places: Xenia (Ohio); Greene County (Ohio)
Description: Views of Camp Bushnell, a military camp in Columbus, Ohio, where companies of the Ohio National Guard assembled during the Spanish-American War. Two smaller photographs show officers in camp, accompanied by a label identifying the camp and a roster of the Ohio National Guard units that were present, while the panoramic photograph shows an elevated view of the camp. Camp Bushnell was established in Columbus as a training camp for Ohio National Guard troops that volunteered for federal service for the Spanish-American War. Columbus Bullet Park, in the present day suburb of Bexley, was renamed Camp Bushnell in honor of Ohio governor Asa Bushnell. The camp was established April 28, 1898, and abandoned May 29, 1898. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: OVS_7247 Subjects: Spanish-American War, 1898; Military encampments; Camp Bushnell (Ohio); Military officers; National Guard; Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Description: Three photographs show angry protestors and National Guard troops outside the Fayette County courthouse during a riot in 1894. The first photograph measures 4 x 6 (10.16 x 15.24 cm); the others are 8" x 10" (20.32 x 25.4 cm). Rioting erupted at the courthouse following the trial of William Dolby, a biracial man accused of raping a white woman in Washington Court House. Dolby pleaded guilty and was sentenced to twenty years at the Ohio Penitentiary. The crowd, however, demanded that Dolby be lynched for the crime. Governor William McKinley, who later became president of the United States, sent out the National Guard to protect Dolby. On the morning of October 17, 1894, the National Guard troops, led by Colonel Alonzo B. Coit, ordered the crowd to disperse. The crowd continued to shout and began ramming the courthouse doors. Coit and his troops fired at the crowd through the doors of the courthouse, killing six men and wounding a dozen others. Bullet holes are still visible in the wooden doors of the courthouse. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3120_3738008_001 Subjects: Military Ohio; Architecture; Ohio Government; Courthouses; National Guard; Riots; Justice--Administration of Places: Washington Court House (Ohio); Fayette County (Ohio)
The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, U.S. Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to make a photocopy or reproduction. One of the specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship or research." If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law.
Ohio History Connection (OHC) Conditions of Reproduction
The right to reproduce materials held in the collections of OHC is granted on a onetime basis only. Any further reproduction of this material is prohibited without the express written permission of the Ohio History Connection.
OHC does not sell duplications, but rather performs the service of reproduction for which a fee is charged.
Materials are reproduced for research use only and may not be used for either publication, exhibition, or any other public purpose without the express written permission of the OHC.
Any publication, exhibition, or other public use of material reproduced from the collections of OHC must credit the Ohio History Connection.
In requesting permission to reproduce materials from the collections of OHC as described, the requestor agrees to hold harmless OHC and its Trustees, Officers, and agents either jointly or severally from any action involving infringement of the rights of any person or their heirs and descendants in common law or under statutory copyright.
Permission to reproduce materials in which reproduction rights are reserved must be granted by signed written permission of the persons holding those rights. Consideration of the requirements of copyrights is the responsibility of the author, producer, and publisher. Applicants assume all responsibility for questions of copyright and invasion of privacy that may arise in copying and using the materials.
Consideration of the requirements of copyrights is the responsibility of the author, producer, and publisher. Applicants assume all responsibility for questions of copyright and invasion of privacy that may arise in copying and using the materials.
Permission may be granted to reproduce portions of the collections of OHC. The reproduction in their entirety of any of the collections of the OHC is prohibited
On occasion, OHC may permit researchers to take photographs of collections owned by the organization. OHC retains ownership rights of images taken under these circumstances. Images may be used for research, but any publication or public display is subject to the above conditions of reproduction. A new use agreement and appropriate fees must be submitted for each use