Description: Taken on April 26, 1930, this photograph shows an aerial view of the Ohio Women's Reformatory in Marysville, Ohio. In 1911, the Ohio General Assembly authorized the establishment of a separate women’s penal institution. On September 1, 1916, the Ohio Reformatory for Women opened in Marysville with a population of 34 inmates. When Marguerite Reilley was appointed superintendent of the Reformatory in 1935, she found dirty and unkempt inmates with excessively restricted living habits. She instituted the “human being” program which provided recreation, entertainment, jobs, and vocational training for the inmates. State Archives Series 6591 AV consists of 128 black and white aerial photographs of Ohio state properties, such as hospitals, universities and colleges, parks, lakes, and reservoirs, and prisons. The photographs were taken in the spring of 1930 by the 112th Photo Section of the 37th Division Air Services. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA6591AV_B01_001 Subjects: Marysville (Ohio); Aerial photographs; Ohio Reformatory for Women; Prisons; Ohio History--State and Local Government--Corrections Places: Marysville (Ohio); Union County (Ohio)
Description: This image is a view of Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio. Rows of headstones mark the soldiers' graves. Visible in the left center background is a bronze figure of a Confederate soldier standing atop a stone arch. The cemetery is located in a residential neighborhood.
Organized in 1861, Camp Chase initially replaced Camp Jackson, located near Columbus, as a recruitment and training center for the Union Army. The facility was named after Salmon P. Chase, Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln and former governor of Ohio. However, Camp Chase became a prisoner-of-war camp early in the war. The first inmates at Camp Chase were chiefly political and military prisoners from Kentucky and Western Virginia allegedly loyal to the Confederacy.
Union victories at Fort Donaldson, Tennessee, on Feb. 16, 1862, and at Mississippi River Island No. 10, on April 8, 1862, brought an influx of Confederate prisoners to Camp Chase, most of whom were enlisted men and non-commissioned officers. During 1863 the prison population at Camp Chase numbered 8,000 men, its peak. Like many prisons in the north, Camp Chase was ravaged by disease; during late 1864, a smallpox epidemic resulted in many deaths. During the course of the Civil War, more than two thousand Confederate prisoners died at Camp Chase.
Initially, prison officials buried dead prisoners in a Columbus city cemetery. In 1863, however, the prison established its own cemetery. Remains were reinterred in the prison cemetery after its opening. Following the war, thirty-one Confederate bodies from Camp Dennison near Cincinnati were moved to the Camp Chase cemetery.
The Union military closed Camp Chase at the end of the Civil War. Efforts to mark the graves of the Confederate dead within the cemetery began by the mid-1890s. Led by William H. Knauss, a wounded Union Army veteran, this movement succeeded in bringing together both Union and Confederate veterans’ organizations to pay tribute to those interred in the cemetery. Memorial services have been held at the cemetery every year since 1896. On June 7, 1902, a monument to the Confederate dead was erected at the cemetery. In 1904, Congress allocated funds for the maintenance of Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery.
Most of what remains of Camp Chase today includes two acres of land, consisting primarily of the Confederate cemetery. Officially, the Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery contains an estimated 2,168 remains in 2,122 graves.
Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery has two monuments. The first depicts a bronze figure of a Confederate Civil War soldier standing atop a granite arch, his rifle held vertically in front of him, with both hands resting on the top of the barrel. Originally the memorial consisted of a wooden arch inscribed with the word “AMERICANS,” but in 1902 the wooden arch was replaced with this 17' tall stone memorial. The second monument is a 3-foot-tall boulder underneath the stone arch. Installed in 1897, the boulder bears an inscription that reads: "2260 Confederate Soldiers of the war 1861-1865 buried in this enclosure." (This statistic disagrees with the official record.)
The Camp Chase site, including the Confederate Cemetery, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06659 Subjects: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (Columbus, Ohio); Camp Chase (Ohio); Civil War; Cemeteries--Ohio; Civil War--Prisoners and prisons; National Register of Historic Places Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Description: View of Johnson's Island, while the American Civil War was happening this island was considered an ideal place to house POWs. Anyone kept there would have a hard time getting away from the place without any help because of the remote nature of the island. Despite this, Johnson's Island was in an ideal place for supply lines to reach. The prison was built without having much trouble if any getting the necessary materials for, and food was shipped in without issue. Even for the prisoners, life on Johnson's Island was not so bad, they were fed and they were treated relatively well as the prison was specifically made to house men of military rank who most often had rich relatives who were willing and able to send them extra money. This is in contrast to the atrocious conditions experienced in other facilities. The island became a part of a daring attempt to create chaos for the Union and force the Union army to divide its ranks and defend Ohio against an unexpected Confederate campaign. The audacious plot was thought up by Charles Cole and John Yates Beall. Cole managed to use his influence to win over Union officials in Sandusky and had a small number of Confederate soldiers become a part of the Union Army. The plan was for Beall to commandeer a civilian ship along with a number of Confederate soldiers. The plan was to use this civilian boat to take control of the Union ship stationed on Lake Erie. To successfully take control of the ship, Cole would eat dinner with the Union officers who would be drugged before Beall took control of the Union ship. The plot was foiled when Cole was found out as a spy, while Beall's men decided to revolt against him. In the end, Cole was arrested and put away, and Beall sentenced to death for his role in the scheme. The U.S. had no need for the island after the war, and eventually the island would be settled and used by civilians. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06733 Subjects: Civil War--Prisoners and prisons; Civil War 1861-1865; Erie, Lake; Erie County (Ohio) Places: Sandusky (Ohio); Erie County (Ohio); Ohio
Description: Dated ca. 1933-1939, this aerial photograph shows Camp Chase, a military prison located four miles outside of Columbus, Ohio, which held Confederate troops during the American Civil War. Camp Chase eventually replaced Camp Jackson as a recruitment and training center for the Union Army. During the course of the Civil War, over two thousand Confederate prisoners died at Camp Chase. This photograph is one of the many visual materials collected for use in the Ohio Guide. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Works Progress Administration by executive order to create jobs for the large numbers of unemployed laborers, as well as artists, musicians, actors, and writers. The Federal Arts Program, a sector of the Works Progress Administration, included the Federal Writers’ Project, one of the primary goals of which was to complete the America Guide series, a series of guidebooks for each state which included state history, art, architecture, music, literature, and points of interest to the major cities and tours throughout the state. Work on the Ohio Guide began in 1935 with the publication of several pamphlets and brochures. The Reorganization Act of 1939 consolidated the Works Progress Administration and other agencies into the Federal Works Administration, and the Federal Writers’ Project became the Federal Writers’ Project in Ohio. The final product was published in 1940 and went through several editions. The Ohio Guide Collection consists of 4,769 photographs collected for use in Ohio Guide and other publications of the Federal Writers’ Project in Ohio from 1935-1939.
View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B05F04C_003_1 Subjects: Military Ohio; Civil War; Camp Chase (Ohio); Military prisons; Federal Writers' Project Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
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