Description: Caption reads: "Five Avenues of Transportation South of Dayton – The Steam Train, the Electric Traction Cars, Canal Boat, Macadamized Turnpike, and Miami River. October 22, 1911." At the start of the nineteenth century, Ohio was isolated geographically. The Appalachian Mountains on the east, Lake Erie to the north, and the Ohio River to the south, isolated the state from its neighbors. During the nineteenth century, new transportation systems formed, granting Ohioans easier access to all parts of the United States of America. In the first decades of the 1800s, turnpikes originated. Water travel became easier with the advent of steamboats. Beginning in the 1820s, canals provided Ohioans with a cheaper and faster form of travel. In the 1840s and 1850s, railroads emerged, allowing Ohio residents to ship their products to market much more easily and quickly. With the start of the twentieth century, several new transportation systems, including automobiles, trucks, and airplanes, emerged. From Zane's Trace, to the Ohio and Erie Canal, to the Wright brothers, Ohioans were at the forefront of all of these transportation innovations. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: SA1039AV_B02F07_018_1 Subjects: Canals--Ohio; Miami and Erie Canal (Ohio)--History; Dayton (Ohio)--Buildings, structures, etc.--Pictorial works; Railroads; Roads; Geography and Natural Resources; Transportation--Ohio--History.; Ohio--History--Pictorial works; Federal Writers' Project Places: Dayton (Ohio); Montgomery County (Ohio)
Description: In the early twentieth century, Cincinnati was linked to a number of other major cities through its rail lines. Union Terminal, a single railroad terminal, was developed to provide service for all passenger and freight lines entering the city. Construction began in the 1920s on the art deco style structure that was designed by architects Alfred Fellheimer and Stewart Wagner. Finished on March 31, 1933, Union Terminal had the largest half-dome in the world at the time. Even today it is the largest half-dome in the Western hemisphere. The artwork associated with Union Terminal was as amazing as the physical structure. Maxfield Keck designed bas-relief figures that represented Commerce and Transportation to flank the main doors. Winold Reiss, a German-born artist, designed murals made from glass mosaic tiles to decorate the interior of the terminal. The art deco style murals illustrate the United States' transportation history, different types of work in the United States, and Cincinnati history. Most of the murals were placed within the main entry of the terminal, but additional murals, portraying major Cincinnati businesses, were located in the concourse. The concourse was torn down in the 1970s, and these murals were relocated to the Northern Kentucky/Greater Cincinnati International Airport. Another artist, Pierre Bourdelle, created a mural at the entrance of the women's lounge. After success as a train terminal throughout the 1930s and 1940s, competition from automobiles and passenger airline service led to a decline in use of the terminal. By 1972, the last train service to Union Terminal ended. After a failed attempt in 1980 to turn Union Terminal into a shopping mall, the building was opened once again in November 1990 and was known as the Museum Center. The renovated Union Terminal now houses the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History and Science, the Cincinnati History Museum, the Cincinnati Historical Society Library, the Cinergy Children's Museum, and an OMNIMAX theater. Amtrak began offering passenger train service to Union Terminal beginning in 1991. Union Terminal was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 31, 1972. Its significance as one of the few remaining large art deco terminals meant that it also became a National Historic Landmark in 1977. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06018 Subjects: Ohio Economy--Transportation and Development; Railroad terminals--Ohio; Architecture--Ohio; Photography--Ohio Places: Cincinnati (Ohio); Hamilton County (Ohio)
Description: This 8" x 10" (20.32 x 25.4 cm) photograph of Coshocton, Ohio, shows the Ohio and Erie Canal (foreground) and the Waldhoning River in the background. The Ohio and Erie Canal was built to connect Lake Erie at Cleveland with the Ohio River at Portsmouth to provide transportation and promote the state's economic development. Construction began in 1825, and the canal was officially opened between Cleveland and Akron on July 4, 1827. The canal was 308 miles long and required 146 locks. After 1850, canal use and maintenance declined as the use of railroad transportation increased. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3004_3627093_001 Subjects: Transportation; Geography and Natural Resources; Canals Places: Coshocton (Ohio); Coshocton County (Ohio)
Description: This photograph, taken in the 1960s, documents the "See Ohio First" exhibit at the Vinton County Fair. The exhibit promoted Ohio as "Transportation Center of the World" with signs reading "First in Industry," and "One in Five Persons Employed in Ohio Work in Fields Related to Highways." The fair is held at the Vinton County Fairgrounds near McArthur, Ohio. The photograph is 2.75" x 2.75" (6.99 x 6.99 cm). View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3053_3656294_001 Subjects: Arts and Entertainment; Transportation; Expositions and fairs Places: McArthur (Ohio); Vinton County (Ohio)
Nimmicks Coal Mine on Ohio and Erie Canal photographSave
Description: This image is a reproduction of a photograph of Nimmick's Coal Mine on the Ohio and Erie Canal in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, ca. 1890. Visible in this image are three canal boats, a structure overlooking the canal that rests on a foundation of tall stilts, and a chute that leads from the structure's floor down to the canal's edge.
The Ohio and Erie Canal was one of Ohio's most important canals during the mid-nineteenth century. Farmers and business owners would be able to transport their products much more easily and cheaply with canals rather than turnpikes. Canals would also possibly open up new markets for Ohio goods.
In 1822 the Ohio legislature created a new Ohio Canal Commission, which eventually recommended two routes: a route that started at Lake Erie, passing through the Cuyahoga Valley, the Muskingum Valley, the Licking Valley, and then to the Ohio River along the Scioto Valley (Ohio and Erie Canal) and a western route along the Miami and Maumee Valleys (Miami and Erie Canal). In 1825 the Ohio legislature approved both routes, and work began immediately. Beginning in Cleveland the Ohio-Erie Canal ran south, the length of the state, to Portsmouth. The canal was a total of 308 miles long, 40 feet wide at the surface, and 4 feet deep.
The Ohio-Erie Canal opened for traffic along its entire length in 1832 and consequently effected great change. Population along the canal increased, and commercial, political, and industrial growth in Ohio boomed. Products grown and manufactured in this previously isolated region now had access to world markets. Profits for farmers and merchants increase, and the entire state economy was bolstered. With the rise of railroads in the 1860s, however, canals were destined to become obsolete because the railroad was a faster and more dependable means of transportation. The canal system ceased to operate altogether after a disastrous flood in 1913. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL06111 Subjects: Ohio and Erie Canal (Ohio); Tuscarawas County (Ohio); Canals--Ohio--History--19th century; Transportation--Ohio--History; Ohio Economy--Transportation and Development Places: Tuscarawas County (Ohio)
Description: These two pictures show the Ohio River near Marietta in the 1920s. The first picture includes the town of Marietta within the photograph while the second picture focuses mainly on a railroad bridge and the Ohio River. The photographs measure 3" x 5" (7.62 x 12.7 cm). Marietta was the first organized American settlement in the Northwest Territory in 1787 by the Ohio Company of Associates. The Ohio and Muskingum Rivers played very important roles in the development of Marietta; citizens used the rivers for everything from agriculture to transportation. The emergence of railroads further heightened the economic growth of this town. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3269_5969534_001 Subjects: Transportation; Business and Labor; Geography and Natural Resources; Rivers; Cityscapes Places: Marietta (Ohio); Washington County (Ohio)
Description: The National Road passing through St. Clairsville, Ohio, from "Historical Collections of Ohio" by Henry Howe, 1907. Congress authorized construction of the National Road in 1806, and in 1811, awarded contracts to private builders to construct the road. The War of 1812 prevented work from beginning until 1815. Construction began in Cumberland, Maryland, and the contractors completed the road to Wheeling, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), in 1817. Eventually, the federal government extended the road to near St. Louis, Missouri. From 1825 to 1838, the National Road was extended across Ohio. The federal government authorized individual states, including Ohio, to maintain the National Road. To cover the associated maintenance costs, Ohio turned the National Road into a toll road. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL04016 Subjects: Transportation--Ohio; Ohio Economy--Transportation and Development Places: St. Clairsville (Ohio); Belmont County (Ohio)
Description: Three photographs show a bookmobile in Noble County, Ohio. Operated by the State Library of Ohio, the bookmobile visited rural parts of southeastern Ohio. The first photograph shows people waiting in line for the bookmobile, while the second photograph shows the interior of the library on wheels. A group of children are shown reading outside the bookmobile in the final photograph. The photographs measure 2.75" x 2.75" (6.99 x 6.99 cm). The State Library of Ohio was established in 1817 to provide services to legislators. The State Library began providing funding to establish libraries in rural areas of Ohio in the 1930s. By 1953, the library operated 53 bookmobiles in 37 counties. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: Om3039_3655078_001 Subjects: Transportation; Literary Ohio; Bookmobiles; Libraries; Books Places: Ava (Ohio); Noble County (Ohio)
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