Description: Hand drawn map of the Wyandot Reservation in the 19th century near Upper Sandusky, Ohio. The reservation has been blocked off in eight sections numbered with Roman numerals. On the map Wyandot is spelled 'Wyandott'. At the point where the IV, III, V, and VI sections meet is the town of Upper Sandusky.
Members of the Wyandot tribe originally lived in southern Canada, but prior to European settlement they were driven south by the Iroquois. They settled in what is now northern Ohio in Wyandot, Marion, and Crawford Counties. The Wyandot tribe was forced to give up their reservation in 1842 and were forcibly removed to a reservation in Kansas the following year. They were the last American Indian tribe to leave Ohio. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL07671 Subjects: American Indian reservations--Ohio; Ohio History--Settlement and Early Statehood; Wyandot Indians--History; Upper Sandusky (Ohio) Places: Upper Sandusky (Ohio); Wyandot County (Ohio)
Description: Illustration of Indian Mill, near Upper Sandusky, Ohio, 1879. Caption reads "The Indian Mill. Isaac Mann, Prop'r [Proprietor]. Situated 2 1/2 miles N.E. of Upper Sandusky, on the Sandusky Riv."
Indian Mill, built in 1861, now serves as the nation's first educational museum of milling housed in its original structure. The restored three-story structure replaces the original one-story building that the U. S. government built in 1820 to reward the loyalty of local Wyandot Indians during the War of 1812. When the War of 1812 came to an end, Wyandot Indians settled and concentrated their nation near modern-day Upper Sandusky. Along with them was a group of African Americans—both free blacks and escaped slaves—who also settled nearby. The two groups worked together farming and managing the land, and part of this intermingling led to some of the Wyandots accepting Christianity, which in turn led to limited perks granted by the federal government. One of those perks was money to build a mill. In 1820, a flour mill and sawmill were both constructed on the banks of the Sandusky River. These mills provided important services for the Wyandot farmers as well as the blacks living in the area. They were able to process their harvests and turn logs into timber to build their homes.
However, under pressure from many white settlers that lived in the area surrounding the Wyandot reservation, the federal government finally decided to permanently remove the Wyandots from Ohio.
Several years later, the last of the Wyandots left the area. Settlers destroyed most remnants of their culture, including homes and churches, and even the Wyandot headstones in local cemeteries.
The mill fell into disrepair and was abandoned. Some years later, the flour mill was re-built on the present site by Lewis Rummel. He used 3 Leffel turbines in his new mill. The mill has been owned by various people over the years and was purchased by the Ohio History Connection in 1968. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: A912_771_W97h_IndianMill Subjects: American Indians in Ohio; Mills and mill-work--Ohio; Wyandot Indians--History; Wyandot County (Ohio); Agriculture; Places: Upper Sandusky (Ohio); Wyandot County (Ohio)
Description: Engraved portrait of Colonel John Johnston (1775-1861), who helped negotiate the Treaty of Upper Sandusky in 1842 and was a strong advocate of the Whig party. President James Madison selected Johnston as the Indian Agent overseeing the native reservations in northwestern Ohio. Johnston helped found Kenyon College and also served on the board of trustees of Miami University, in addition to publishing one of the earliest histories of the Native Americans that once called Ohio home. The portrait is taken from "Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio" by Henry Howe, 1907. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL03983 Subjects: Piqua (Ohio); Ohio History--Presidents and Politics; Wyandot Indians--History; Miami University; Kenyon College Places: Piqua (Ohio); Miami County (Ohio)
Description: Portrait of Bill Moose Crowfoot in head dress and beaded tunic, 1930. He is regarded to have been the last of the Wyandot Indians who lived in Central Ohio. He was born in 1837 in northwest Ohio and moved to the Columbus area with his family when most of his tribe was displaced to Kansas and later to Oklahoma. He was known to have wandered the area around the Olentangy and Scioto rivers. He later lived in a small shack at the corner of Indianola and Morse Roads. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL03604 Subjects: Wyandot Indians--History; American Indian history and society Places: Columbus (Ohio); Franklin County (Ohio)
Margaret Grey-Eyes "Mother" Solomon photographSave
Description: Photograph of Margaret Grey-Eyes "Mother" Solomon, last Wyandot Indian, ca. 1880. Her family lived on the Grand Reserve, the twelve-by-nineteen square mile reservation in what is now known as Wyandot County. She attended the first school on the reservation, established by missionary John Stewart. In July 1843, she, her first husband David Young and their children, were among the tribe members relocated to Kansas City, Kansas. She and her second husband, John Solomon, returned to live in Upper Sandusky, Ohio, around 1865. Margaret's work in the Wyandot community earned her the nickname "Mother Solomon." View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL03678 Subjects: Wyandot Indians--History; Women--Ohio; Multicultural Ohio--Ethnic Communities; American Indian history and society;
Description: Dated ca. 1953-1970, this photograph shows Indian Mill in Upper Sandusky, Ohio. A man and woman sit on the edge of the wall at the lower left corner of the mill.
After the War of 1812, members of the Wyandotte Tribe and a group of African Americans, comprised of both free and freedom seekers, settled near modern day Upper Sandusky, Ohio. Because these two communities lived close to each other and worked together, many of the Wyandottes accepted Christianity and adopted the customs of their African American neighbors, which resulted in limited perks from the federal government, including money to build a mill.
In 1820, a flour mill and sawmill were both constructed on the banks of the Sandusky River which allowed the Wyandottes and African Americans in the area to process their harvests and turn logs into timber to build their homes. However, under pressure from many white settlers who lived in the area surrounding the Wyandotte reservation, the federal government decided to permanently move the Wyandottes out of Ohio. Several years later, the last of the Wyandottes left the area.
The mills fell into disrepair and were abandoned. In 1861, the flour mill was rebuilt on the present site by Lewis Rummel, who used three water-powered turbines made by The James Leffel & Co. of Springfield, Ohio, in his new mill. The mill has been owned by various people over the years and was purchased by the Ohio History Connection in 1968.
Indian Mill is managed locally by the Wyandot County Archaeological & Historical Society. View on Ohio Memory. Image ID: AL01009 Subjects: Mills and mill-work -- Ohio; Wyandot Indians -- History; African American Ohioans; American Indians in Ohio; Historical Museums -- Ohio Places: Upper Sandusky (Ohio); Wyandot County (Ohio)
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